27000 BC - Tri-Stone Area 1542 - Doof Dynasty 1903 - Steampunx 1914 - Phineas and Ferb and the Temple of Juatchadoon 1930s - Phineas and Ferb‘s grandparents are all born 1950s - Major Monogram is born Late 1950s/Early 60s - Linda and Lawrence are born Summer 1961 - Doofenshmirtz is born 1965 - Orton Mahlson creates Doctor Zone 1960s/70s - Most of Doof’s backstories 1979/80 - Doof moves to America 1982 - Doof dates Linda Late 1980s - Doof and Charlene get married Late 1980s - Carl is born 1989/90 - Monty Monogram is born 1992 - Jeremy is born Summer 1992 - Stacy is born June 15, 1992 - Vanessa is born July 11, 1993 - Candace is born 1994 - Zack is born 1995 - Melissa is born September 1995 - Milo is born 1999/2000 - Buford, Baljeet and Irving are born Summer 1999/2000 - Phineas and Isabella are born February 29, 2000 - Ferb is born 2001/02 - Linda and Lawrence fall in love at a Love Handel concert Summer 2003 - Phineas and Ferb adopt Perry October 31, 2007 - That’s the Spirit December 2007 - For Your Ice Only December 24/25, 2007 - Phineas and Ferb Christmas Vacation! December 31, 2007/January 1, 2008 - Happy New Year! Summer 2008 - Phineas and Ferb September 2008 - Doof 101 Fall 2008 - OWCA Files October 31, 2008 - Drusselsteinoween Fall/Winter 2008 - Milo Murphy‘s Law Mid-2010s - Candace and Jeremy get married Mid-2010s - Amanda is born September 2018 - Act Your Age 2020 - Professor Time invents Time Travel Early 2020s - Xavier and Fred are born Summer 2028 - Quantum Boogaloo 2110s/20s - Cavendish is born 2130s - Dakota is born 2175 - the year Cavendish and Dakota are from
The Top 500 most influential people of all-time according to Pantheon
Pantheon is a site by MIT that uses Wikipedia pages to create a formula to determine an individuals historical significance. The site has ranked over 70,000 people. Here is a page detailing how the formula works
Here are the top 500 People of all-time
500: Deng Xiaoping 499: Johan Cruyff 498: Pope Gregory I 497: Marquis de Sade 496: Stan Lee 495: Mark Antony 494: Rabindranath Tagore 493: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria 492: Henri Becquerel 491: Bayezid II 490: William Wallace 489: James Joyce 488: Morgan Freeman 487: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 486: Wallis Simpson 485: Stefan Zweig 484: Al-Ghazali 483: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 482: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor 481: Akbar 480: Abdul Hamid II 479: Pierre de Fermat 478: Origen 477: Jan van Eyck 476: Uthman 475: Kösem Sultan 474: Benedict of Nursia 473: Michel de Montaigne 472: Pope Clement VII 471: Josef Mengele 470: Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 469: Gabriel García Márquez 468: Al-Farabi 467: Umberto Eco 466: John Wilkes Booth 465: Amenhotep III 464: Kim Jong-il 463: Pol Pot 462: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 461: Elizabeth Báthory 460: Janis Joplin 459: Marlon Brando 458: Vespasian 457: Sappho 456: Pope Alexander VI 455: Adolf Eichmann 454: Angela Merkel 453: Isaac 452: Igor Stravinsky 451: Philip IV of France 450: Auguste Rodin 449: Hermann Göring 448: Mehmed III 447: Al Pacino 446: Ernest Rutherford 445: Francis Drake 444: Fibonacci 443: Ingmar Bergman 442: Ruhollah Khomeini 441: Husayn ibn Ali 440: Anne Boleyn 439: Claudius 438: Gustave Eiffel 437: Maria Montessori 436: Gian Lorenzo Bernini 435: Bartholomew the Apostle 434: Bertrand Russell 433: Eugène Delacroix 432: Murad I 431: Stanley Kubrick 430: Martin Luther King Jr. 429: Howard Hughes 428: Hokusai 427: Ignatius of Loyola 426: 14th Dalai Lama 425: Cardinal Richelieu 424: Jonah 423: Muammar Gaddafi 422: Michel Foucault 421: Friedrich Schiller 420: Pope Pius XII 419: Marlene Dietrich 418: Matsuo Bashō 417: Piet Mondrian 416: Guglielmo Marconi 415: Pope John Paul I 414: Wassily Kandinsky 413: Lord Byron 412: Louis XIII of France 411: Pierre Curie 410: Thomas More 409: Ludwig Wittgenstein 408: André-Marie Ampère 407: Grigori Rasputin 406: Xerxes I 405: Charles Baudelaire 404: Thucydides 403: James Clerk Maxwell 402: Jane Austen 401: Pope Paul VI 400: Isabella I of Castile 399: Zheng He 398: Brigitte Bardot 397: Pierre-Auguste Renoir 396: Clint Eastwood 395: Osman I 394: Émile Durkheim 393: Wilhelm II, German Emperor 392: Giacomo Casanova 391: Florence Nightingale 390: Galen 389: Auguste Comte 388: Pope Benedict XVI 387: Bayezid I 386: Édouard Manet 385: Euripides 384: Plutarch 383: Pope John XXIII 382: Denis Diderot 381: Pepin the Short 380: Democritus 379: Pablo Escobar 378: Skanderbeg 377: Anthony of Padua 376: Simone de Beauvoir 375: Diogenes 374: Erwin Rommel 373: Aristophanes 372: Philip II of Spain 371: John the Apostle 370: Herod the Great 369: Tiberius 368: Henry Dunant 367: Rajneesh 366: Sun Tzu 365: Catherine de' Medici 364: Ivan Pavlov 363: Theodosius I 362: Abu Bakr 361: Charles Martel 360: Paracelsus 359: Henry Ford 358: Leonid Brezhnev 357: Boris Yeltsin 356: Émile Zola 355: Murad III 354: Carl Jung 353: Darius the Great 352: Antonín Dvořák 351: Edvard Grieg 350: Yasser Arafat 349: Ashoka 348: Cher 347: Mary I of England 346: Max Planck 345: David Hume 344: Audrey Hepburn 343: F. Scott Fitzgerald 342: Eratosthenes 341: Hieronymus Bosch 340: Daniel Defoe 339: Alexander Fleming 338: Ibn Khaldun 337: Giacomo Puccini 336: Michael Jackson 335: Karl Benz 334: Niels Bohr 333: Hypatia 332: Hadrian 331: Martin Heidegger 330: Mimar Sinan 329: Édith Piaf 328: Murad IV 327: Lorenzo de' Medici 326: Rumi 325: Alexander Graham Bell 324: Chiang Kai-shek 323: Thomas Mann 322: Oscar Wilde 321: Philip II of Macedon 320: Hermann Hesse 319: Bartolomeu Dias 318: Søren Kierkegaard 317: Aeschylus 316: El Greco 315: John Maynard Keynes 314: Ibn Battuta 313: Arthur Conan Doyle 312: Astrid Lindgren 311: Akihito 310: James, son of Zebedee 309: George Orwell 308: Pieter Bruegel the Elder 307: Donatello 306: Alain Delon 305: Henry IV of France 304: Ahmed I 303: Louis XV of France 302: Antoine Lavoisier 301: Henrik Ibsen 300: Heinrich Himmler 299: Alessandro Volta 298: Walt Disney 297: Franklin D. Roosevelt 296: Diocletian 295: Gregor Mendel 294: Niccolò Paganini 293: Saint Nicholas 292: Marcel Proust 291: Nebuchadnezzar II 290: Gustav Klimt 289: Margaret Thatcher 288: Hirohito 287: Alfred Hitchcock 286: Averroes 285: Stendhal 284: Mary II of England 283: Alan Turing 282: Napoleon III 281: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor 280: Vladimir Putin 279: Laozi 278: Titian 277: Coco Chanel 276: John Lennon 275: Empress Elisabeth of Austria 274: Henri Matisse 273: Robert Schumann 272: Mother Teresa 271: Andrew the Apostle 270: Giuseppe Garibaldi 269: Hernán Cortés 268: Benjamin Franklin 267: Paul Cézanne 266: Horace 265: Mehmed the Conqueror 264: Pontius Pilate 263: Miguel de Cervantes 262: Ali 261: George Wahsington 260: Richard I of England 259: Giovanni Boccaccio 258: Jan Hus 257: Matthew the Apostle 256: Ivan the Terrible 255: Henry Kissinger 254: Karl Lagerfeld 253: Bruce Lee 252: Kim Il-sung 251: Rosa Luxemburg 250: Selim I 249: Omar Khayyam 248: Johannes Brahms 247: Francisco Franco 246: Trajan 245: Nicholas II of Russia 244: Neil Armstrong 243: Friedrich Engels 242: Alexandre Dumas 241: Alexander Pushkin 240: James K. Polk 239: Nicolae Ceaușescu 238: Saddam Hussein 237: Agatha Christie 236: Thales of Miletus 235: John Calvin 234: Gustav Mahler 233: Franz Liszt 232: Justinian I 231: Hammurabi 230: Erasmus 229: Saint Joseph 228: Mark Twain 227: Selim II 226: Steven Spielberg 225: Diego Velázquez 224: Malcolm X 223: Nikita Khrushchev 222: Charles Dickens 221: Pericles 220: Franz Joseph I of Austria 219: Paul Gauguin 218: Sandro Botticelli 217: James Cook 216: Mary, Queen of Scots 215: Henry VIII of England 214: Ptolemy 213: Pocahontas 212: Spartacus 211: Anne Frank 210: Elvis Presley 209: John F. Kennedy 208: Johannes Vermeer 207: Petrarch 206: Amerigo Vespucci 205: Roald Amundsen 204: Hillary Clinton 203: Marcus Aurelius 202: Akhenaten 201: Albert Camus 200: Heraclitus 199: Josip Broz Tito 198: Ovid 197: Le Corbusier 196: Martin Van Buren 195: Ernest Hemingway 194: Edvard Munch 193: Caligula 192: Marie Antoinette 191: Michael Faraday 190: Freddie Mercury 189: Arthur Schopenhauer 188: Charles de Gaulle 187: Catherine the Great 186: Huang Xianfan 185: Ramesses II 184: Fidel Castro 183: Leon Trotsky 182: Thomas Hobbes 181: Antoine de Saint-Exupéry 180: Aesop 179: Bob Marley 178: Max Weber 177: Peter the Great 176: Sophocles 175: Leonhard Euler 174: Vlad the Impaler 173: Honoré de Balzac 172: Francisco Goya 171: Hurrem Sultan 170: Epicurus 169: Louis XVI of France 168: Aaron 167: Montesquieu 166: Antoni Gaudí 165: Elijah 164: Ronald Reagan 163: Dmitri Mendeleev 162: Caravaggio 161: George Frideric Handel 160: Qin Shi Huang 159: Sylvester Stallone 158: Judas Iscariot 157: Seneca the Younger 156: Mary Magdalene 155: Commodus 154: Pelé 153: Anton Chekhov 152: Jean-Paul Sartre 151: Francis of Assisi 150: Jacob 149: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 148: Nostradamus 147: Richard III of England 146: Maria Theresa 145: Umar 144: Jack the Ripper 143: Queen Victoria 142: Nefertiti 141: Saint George 140: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 139: Yuri Gagarin 138: Franz Schubert 137: Mikhail Gorbachev 136: Joseph 135: Giordano Bruno 134: Jules Verne 133: James Watt 132: Joseph Haydn 131: Claude Monet 130: Peter Paul Rubens 129: Nero 128: Baruch Spinoza 127: Stephen Hawking 126: Louis Pasteur 125: Pope John Paul II 124: Euclid 123: Marilyn Monroe 122: Virgil 121: Richard Wagner 120: John Locke 119: Abraham Lincoln 118: Winston Churchill 117: Giuseppe Verdi 116: Thomas Aquinas 115: Albrecht Dürer 114: Cicero 113: Frida Kahlo 112: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 111: Attila 110: Mao Zedong 109: Edgar Allan Poe 108: Johannes Kepler 107: Carl Friedrich Gauss 106: Otto von Bismarck 105: Constantine the Great 104: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 103: Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi 102: Suleiman the Magnificent 101: Molière 100: Zoroaster 99: Francis Bacon 98: Benito Mussolini 97: Hannibal 96: Leo Tolstoy 95: Alfred Nobel 94: Hippocrates 93: Franz Kafka 92: Blaise Pascal 91: Augustine of Hippo 90: Herodotus 89: David 88: Solomon 87: Cleopatra 86: Victor Hugo 85: Muhammad Ali 84: John the Baptist 83: Carl Linnaeus 82: Tutankhamun 81: Saladin 80: Niccolò Machiavelli 79: Voltaire 78: Charlie Chaplin 77: Jimmy Carter 76: J. R. R. Tolkien 75: Antonio Vivaldi 74: Hans Christian Andersen 73: Salvador Dalí 72: Elizabeth I of England 71: Timur 70: Fyodor Dostoevsky 69: Friedrich Nietzsche 68: Mahatma Gandhi 67: Nikola Tesla 66: Johannes Gutenberg 65: Adam Smith 64: Paul the Apostle 63: Charlemagne 62: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 61: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 60: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 59: Raphael 58: Avicenna 57: Frédéric Chopin 56: Marie Curie 55: Nelson Mandela 54: Thomas Edison 53: Pythagoras 52: René Descartes 51: Vladimir Lenin 50: Sigmund Freud 49: Augustus 48: Thomas Jefferson 47: Pope Francis 46: Homer 45: Vasco da Gama 44: Elizabeth II 43: Immanuel Kant 42: Rembrandt 41: Mary, mother of Jesus 40: Pablo Picasso 39: Joseph Stalin 38: Joan of Arc 37: Louis XIV of France 36: Che Guevara 35: Ferdinand Magellan 34: Charles Darwin 33: Dante Alighieri 32: Nicolaus Copernicus 31: Abraham 30: Karl Marx 29: Moses 28: Vincent van Gogh 27: Saint Peter 26: Martin Luther 25: Archimedes 24: Confucius 23: Johann Sebastian Bach 22: Gautama Buddha 21: Michelangelo 20: William Shakespeare 19: Donald Trump 18: Julius Caesar 17: Socrates 16: Galileo Galilei 15: Albert Einstein 14: Aristotle 13: Christopher Columbus 12: Marco Polo 11: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 10: Plato 9: Adolf Hitler 8: Napoleon 7: Alexander the Great 6: Ludwig van Beethoven 5: Isaac Newton 4: Genghis Khan 3: Leonardo da Vinci 2: Jesus 1: Muhammad
The Saga of Upgrading a Sprocket and Chain on an 81 XT250.
Well, it all started out with a broken chain. Actually, my chain got caught up in the gearbox. Upon pushing the bike home 3 miles, I removed the gearbox cover on the left side and discovered that the chain was tangled up quite a mess. After somehow, accidently popping off the master-link. (To this day, I'm not even sure if it was the master-link, but it cracked open with a screw driver) I got the chain loose. That's when I noticed my sprocket was missing some teeth. Figure I'd order a new sprocket and chain. I decided to go up one Tooth. I went from a 15t (supposedly stock) broken sprocket, to a 16t sprocket. Fresh. I also ordered a stylish, new, 98link chain, because I figured, what the hell. Now depending on who you ask, the 1981 Xt250 chain specs are as follows.. 520 Chain with a 98 link Length. Depending on who you ask, the Stock sprocket for a 1981 XT250 is either 15T or 16T - I previously had a 15T sprocket with a 98L Chain, with the Rear Tire set at a 7 Click. Still following me here? New Chain comes in. New Sprocket comes in. I'm now running a 16T sprocket on a 98L chain. Guess what? Chain is too short. So I bring the Rear tire ALL THE WAY to a 5 CLICK. MEaning the axel adjustment is on 5, instead of 7. Needless to say, the new chain still didn't fit and I used the old chain. With the old chain on, (new master link) - The bike Felt very UNSTABLE. Something about it. After much discussion, chain measuring, and thought, I decided that bringing the tire forward on the axel adjusters is the reason the bike feels unstable. See, I got used to riding the bike around on CLICK 7 for 6 months. With the Axel adjuster on CLICK 5, it felt like I was rolling around on Ice Skates. Had to be careful on my turns, didn't want to lean. She just felt a little more "SLIPPERY." Sprocket felt a bit nicer. I had more low end RPM at higher speed, which is what I wanted, since I like to do a lot of road miles. But, due to the handeling.. she goes back to the shop. Back to the Shop she goes. And NOW I'm sitting with the chain, sprocket, shifter, gearbox cover off. She sits. I'm throwing on both the Old Chain, and new chain. I'm measuring her up and down according to specs. Now the Chain has to be between 50-60mm in clearance. I'm putting that adjuster on 5, 5.1, 5.2, 6, 6.1,6.2, 7, 7.1,7.2, - Every damn milimeter I move that rear axel, I sure as shit measure it down and record my findings. I find that my OLD CHAIN needs two teeth, to most likely be compatible with my sprocket. Which would mean ordering a 100L chain. Right? After all the measurements and the psychotic obsession. The next step is measuring the new chain. And guess what? that Chain, according to my playing around and obsessing over each link, I figure my new chain needs to be a 101 length chain. But Chains don't come in ODD NUMBERS! So guess what? I settled on a 100Length chain, and am going to pray for the best. Total cost came out to somewhere around $300 for the chains, the sprocket, the grease, and some other bullshit I needed. There is nothing like taking your bike apart and putting it back together and riding down the road. The obsession of my two wheel'd love comes from the Joy of riding her. Had I not experienced such joy from this 40 year old machine, and every groveling exhaust note, I wouldn't go through the painful lessons I've had to deal with in repair and maintnence. WISH ME LUCK fellas. Wish me luck this new chain with 100links fits on this bike. It is according to spec. It's a 520 - 100l chain made by D.I.D. so it SHOULD work. IF ALL ELSE FAILS, I will order a new 15T sprocket and just throw, the 98l chains on that, and pray for the best. I don't know if you guys feel my pain, but ordering the wrong parts is painful.
Here is the 10 year piano progression according to the traditional Italian education system
1st Year BARTOK, Mikrokosmos vol. I BEYER, op. 101 BERTINI, op. 137 CZERNY, op. 599 DUVERNOY, op. 176 KOEHLER, op. 157 TROMBONE, First canons POZZOLI, First exercises in polyphony KUNZ, 200 canons Anna Magdalena notebook 2nd Year Scales: Major, minors in parallel motion CZERNY, op. 849, op. 636 DUVERNOY, op. 176, op. 120, op. 276 BARTOK, Mikrokosmos vol. II & III BERTINI, op. 29 HELLER, op. 45 Anna Magdalena's notebook J. S. BACH, Little preludes and fugues CLEMENTI, Op. 36, 37, 38 KUHLAU, Sonatinas DUSSEK, Sonatinas MOZART, Viennese Sonatinas 3rd Year Scales: Major, minors in parallel and contrary motion Arpeggios CZERNY, op. 636, op. 299, op. 740 HELLER, Etudes op. 45, 46, 47 BERTINI, op. 32 BARTOK, Mikrokosmos vol. III & IV BACH: Two-part inventions BACH: French suites various classical Sonatinas or Sonatas 4th Year BERTINI, op. 134 CRAMER, 60 Etudes by Bulow CZERNY, op. 299, op. 834, op. 740 LISZT, Etudes op. 1 BACH, Sinfonias BACH, English suites Sonatas by MOZART, HAYDN, CLEMENTI, BEETHOVEN 5th Year (lower level exam)
Play a randomly selected etude (usually Bertini, Cramer or Czerny op 740)
Play one JS Bach selection from Sinfonias or English suites
Play one piece randomly selected from 3 Italian harpsichordists
One complete sonata selected from Mozart, Clementi or Beethoven (op 10 #1, op 10 #2, op 14 #2, op 27 #2)
One piece from the following: CHOPIN, Bolero op. 19; Impromptu n. 1 op. 29; Valses op. 34 #1; op. 42; op. 64 #3; p. 64 #2; Polacca in G# min.; 6 Preludes WEBER, Rondo brillante in Eb Maj.; Invitation a la valse op. 65 SCHUBERT, Impromptu in Eb Maj. op. 90 n. 2; Impromptu in Gb Maj. Op.90 n. 3. SCHUMANN, Carnaval de Vienne; Papillons; 6 pieces from Waldszenen or Albumblaetter LISZT, Le Rossignol; one of the Consolations DEBUSSY, Children‘s corner
Scales: major, minors in parallel and contrary motion by one octave, one third and one sixth
6th Year Scales double thirds and double sixths CLEMENTI, Gradus ad Parnassum Etudes: MOSCHELES MENDELSSOHN RUBINSTEIN THALBERG KESSLER Toccata by CZERNY D. SCARLATTI, Sonata BACH, Well-Tempered Clavier, vol. I. Sonatas: BEETHOVEN SCHUBERT WEBER MOZART HAYDN CLEMENTI 7th Year CLEMENTI, Gradus ad Parnassum D. SCARLATTI, Sonata BACH, Well-Tempered Clavier, vol.II. Sonatas: BEETHOVEN SCHUBERT WEBER 8th Year (intermediate level exam)
One brilliant Scarlatti sonata chosen from 3 studied
One randomly selected etude from Gradus ad Parnassum CLEMENTI: 2, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 26, 30, 32, 36, 44, 47, 58, 63, 65, 78, 86, 87, 88, 95, 96 .
One Prelude and Fugue selected 24 hours before from 12 selected in Bach WTC vol 1 and 12 selected in WTC vol 2
One etude selected from 2 studied from the following list MOSCHELES, 1, 3, 23 op. 70 CZERNY, Toccata op. 92 KESSLER, 1, 8, 10 op. 20 MENDELSSOHN, op. 104/b n. l; op. 104/a n. 2 THALBERG, op. 26 n. 1 RUBINSTEIN, any in op. 23
One Beethoven sonata selected from the following: op 2 #3, op 7, op 10 #3, op 13, op 26, op 28, op 31 #1 and #2, op 53 and op 81a
One piece selected from the following list: WEBER, Finale of 1st Sonata (Moto perpetuo); Grande polonaise SCHUBERT, Impromptu in B flat major op. 142 MENDELSSOHN, Variations sérieuses op. 54; Scherzo e capriccio; Rondo capriccioso op. 14 SCHUMANN, Romanza op. 32 #1; In der Nacht, Traumes-Wirren, Aufschwung,Phantasiestuecke op. 12; Novelletten. op. 21 n. 2
One piece selected from the following list: BRAHMS, 2 Rhapsodies, op.79, Capriccio in B min; Intermezzi op. 117 (one) SAINT-SAENS Caprice su Alceste SGAMBATI, Studio melodico MARTUCCI, Study op. 47 DEBUSSY, Jardins sous la pluie , Danseuses de Delphes RAVEL, Le tombeau de Couperin
9th Year Etudes: CHOPIN LISZT SCRIABIN RACHMANINOV DEBUSSY SAINT-SAENS 10th year (Final Board Exam for Diploma) Prepare a 60-75 min recital selecting one from each of these groups:
Group 1: J. S. BACH, any composition for keyboard Bach transcriptions LISZT, TAUSIG, BUSONI, D‘ALBERT BEETHOVEN, Any sonata from op. 57 to op. 111; Diabelli variations op. 120; Rondo op. 129; C minor variations WOo 80
Group 2: WEBER, Sonata n. 2 op. 39 SCHUBERT, Fantasia op. 15 SCHUMANN, Fantasia op. 17; Carnaval op. 9; Studi sinfonici op. 13 CHOPIN, Sonata op. 58; Sonata op. 35, 3 compositions selected from: Ballata n. 2 op. 38; Ballata n. 4 op. 52; Polacca op. 44; Polacca op. 53; Notturni Mazurche LISZT, Sonata in B min; Scherzo und Marsch; Mephisto Waltz ; Transcendental etudes: Mazeppa #4 or Feux Follets #5; One of the 3 concert etudes
Group 3: BRAHMS, Paganini variations op. 35; Variations on a Handel theme; Rhapsody in Eb Maj. op. 119 #4 SAINT- SAENS, 6 Etudes op. 111 FRANCK, Preludio, Corale e Fuga or Preludio, Aria e Finale CHABRIER, Bourree Fantastique SGAMBATI, Preludio e Fuga, Due studi da concerto MARTUCCI, Tema con variazioni op. 58, Fantasia op. 51 BOSSI, Studio da concerto op. 137 n. 3 in sib min. Moto perpetuo.
Group 4: BALAKIREV, Islamey LYAPOUNOV, Trascendental studies MOUSSORGSKI, Tableaux d‘une exposition SCRIABIN, Studies, Sonatas DEBUSSY, Preludes Estampes, Pour le piano RAVEL, Alborada del Gracioso, Gaspard de la Nuit, Jeux d‘eau ALBENIZ, Iberia STRAVINSKY, Sonata BARTOK, Suite Allegro barbaro
Crap Survey It would be great if you guys can take a min of your time to fill This out for me, so ill know what i can focus on for the up coming Crap List, much appreciated!!! First of all like to thanks u/AnorhiDemarche for the tips and guidance this Crap might not be the best Shit, but it is still some Crap. This is the first time im doing this kind of thing so fellow Sydney be patience with me, ill try do my best and fit all your needs, and please feel free to criticize this Carp if needed, plus If you have any suggestions like me to add to the Crap just let me know. This is a Trial run so if things goes well, might post a list of crap every Month/Fortnight/week depends on you guys like it or not Just For Insurance This is Crap list is simply accumulate from various websites I’m not the event planner nor the organizer, I’m purely doing this to crop with my own crap in life. Please double check with the coordinators for time and date of the event. I am not here topromote or spamanything onSydneyjust putting information for people want to have fun this weekend future Crap may subject to change.
[For Trade] Too much to list, located in Nashville TN
$150 for all records minus Walt Disney and unopened records. Otherwise, trade is preferred. Pick up only. I just came across a rather large collection that someone could make money with patience or add to their collection. PM me for my phone number and I can send pictures. I have approximately too many records that I want to trade or sale or give away including: Ohio Players - Contradiction (mint unopened) $100 Conway Twitty (various albums including the Loretta ones) $40 Mamas and papas (sorry flippers, no toilets - various) $10 Ecology - Environment / Evolution (unopened) - $15 Lots of movie soundtracks (gone with the wind, pink panther, a face in the crowd, west side story, Shirley temple, etc etc) $50 nat cole (various albums) $20 Baja marimba band (various albums) $5 Lots of symphony and orchestra items - $40 Roger Williams - $10 The turtles battle of the bands - $15 Boots Randolph (lots of albums) $20 David Frye - $5 Alabama - $5 The best of Chris Christian (unopened) - $10 Ken griffin (unopened) - $10 What the world needs now is love - unopened - $10 Freddie hart - country heart n soul (unopened) - $10 Robert Lamm - skinny boy (unopened) - $10 The mason Williams phonograph record (unopened) - $10 Tons of Walt Disney (Mary poppies, Winnie the Pooh, Cinderella, Snow White, Handel and Gretel, Brer Rabbit, Peter Pan, so dear to my heart, Robin Hood, Tina ballerina, Mickey and the beanstalk, the little engine that could, 101 Dalmatians) - $150 Puff the magic dragon (various) - $10 Sesame Street - $2 Wizard of oz - $2 Dr. Seuss - fox in Socks : green eggs and ham. - $10 Lots of nursery and children’s vinyl - $5 Lots of country - $40 The hi los - $5 Percy faith - $5 George Jones (lots) - $10 Kenny Rogers (lots) - $40 Tammy Wynette - $5 JFK speeches - $5 Lots of herb Albert - $5 Mad TV - $5 Jesus Christ super star - $5 Various comedy vinyls - $5 Anne Murray - $5 Streisand - $5 Diary of Anne frank - $20 Murray McLaughlan - Song from the street (unopened) - $10 ZZ Hill - The Best the that’s ever happened to me (unopened) - $25 Billy Swan - I can help (unopened) - $10 Nana Mouskouri Sings Over &Over (unopened) - $10 Basil Rathbone reads Edgar Allen Poe - $10 Stephen Michael Schwartz - unopened - $15 Buck Owens (various) - $5 Ray price (various) - $10 Elvis - $5 Tommy overstreet $5 Various America / patriot albums - $10 Various Christmas albums (bing cosby, frost the snowman, mahalia Jackson, Elvis, Christmas with the stars) $15 Barry manilow (multiple) $15 Heywoods $5 The partridge family (various) $10 To The Moon II: The Story in Pictures and Text (books and vinyl recording and stuff of moon landing) $40 Various compilation albums - $15 Gershwin $5 Pagliacci complete opera $5 Hundreds of albums I still haven’t gone through. Nearly everything in my collection is up for trade or sale, so feel free to offer. I will be updating my discogs collection over the next couple of weeks as I dig through more of these boxes are continue to sort the records. https://discogs.page.link/WD8i
We just had a New Kadampa Tradition fanstan show up to sniffily attempt to school us on using "biased" sources
So typical of culties to show up and disdainfully sniff that we critics simply don't know what we're talking about. This is the standard "Shut up shut up SHUT UP!" technique that is supposed to cause us to feel ashamed that we have not managed to obtain our critic's approval! Obviously, their approval should be the all-important motivator for us, because that's how interpersonal relationships work in cults - duh! But they don't seem to realize that we have no need for their approval; we're going to do whatever interests us, and their disapproval don't mean SQUAT to us!
Yeah, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso is missing in action, that’s why he wrote a book last year and gave teachings but let’s not let facts get in the way of culty conspiracy theories which are far more sensational and interesting! It seems you’re missing in action if you’re not on social media every day but just quietly getting on with helping others without a fanfare. If you want to know more about NKT, it might be a good idea to check out more than one (biased) source. Source
As my time in the NKT came to an end, I reflected on the experience and it slowly dawned on me that I had actually been sucked into a cult. At first it doesn’t appear like that but gradually it becomes obvious — due to the total isolation of the group from all other forms of Tibetan Buddhism, or any Buddhism for that matter.
Same with SGI. Ikeda prides himself on paying for photo opsmeeting with world leadersno one has ever heard of, but he's never met with any legitimate Buddhist leader. For obvious reasons. The Dalai Lama would mop the floor with his sorry ass.
The biggest obvious clue that it’s a cult is that they only read and study books by Kelsang Gyatso — you won’t find any other Buddhist books in an NKT centre.
Same with the Ikeda cult! ONLY Ikeda's name is permitted to be on the books for sale in an SGI centre - that, or something vague like "SGI Study Department". And this is entirely by plan - see also here for the purpose.
I won’t refer to him as Geshe Kelsang, because he never actually completed his Geshe training and has been expelled from his original monastery, for actions not becoming a Buddhist monk.
Well, well, well! Yeah, the SGI cult leader Ikeda wants everyone to call him "Sensei", but he never completed any training or certification or even study, being a community college dropout in his first semester. He still insists on being regarded as "the world's foremost authority on Nichiren Buddhism" and "the supreme theoretician" - all by virtue of being the cult leader. I guess that position itself confers knowledge and wisdom automatically - perhaps you can enlighten us on how this process works. It sounds fascinating.
The studying is not real studying either, because it’s just memorising his texts, so that you can become an NKT clone, parroting the same sentences in the same NKT style. People often comment how they all sound the same — it’s no wonder: NKT is like a sausage machine that takes ordinary people with spiritual aspirations and turns them into a type of robot: the KelsangBot. “Beware of the KelsangBots!”: Coming soon to a town near you!
EXACTLY the same in SGI!!
This is fascinating!!
I had been interested in the spiritual path for a long time, having found the ordinary pursuits of worldly life rather unsatisfying and meaningless. However, having been raised as a Catholic and then a Jehovah’s Witness, I was suspicious about organized religion generally, but thought naively that somehow Buddhism was different from Christianity because it did not require blind faith in the existence of God — they say it’s more like a psychology of thought than a religion.
Oh, brother - is that ever a familiar refrain! Yep, same in the SGI cult!
The first talk I attended was a free Public Talk in the spring on 1992 — it sounded like an innocuous and useful subject : The Art of Positive Thinking. During the persuasive and amusing talk given by Thubten Gyatso (Neil Elliott) I felt a sense of “coming home”, that at last someone was talking sense to me: that happiness could not be found in external conditions, but rather in discovering it within my own mind, rather like the sunshine that’s always there but sometimes gets obscured by clouds. I liked that analogy a lot.
LOL - this is hilarious! In a sadly familiar kind of way, of course.
So I wanted more, I wanted to find that sunshine hidden within my own mind, behind the dark miserable clouds that had plagued my mind throughout my life. I attended the General Programme classes every week and soon began to get involved in organising them and doing publicity work. I naively believed that if only people got to hear Thubten Gyatso speak, or even my own Resident Teacher, that they would see the Buddha dharma as the key to ending their suffering, as I did.
Chasing that lure of "happiness" the cult dangles always just out of reach, I see. Typical.
It wasn’t long before I was enrolled on the start-up Foundation Programme and busily working towards setting up a residential centre. After FP I often used to go for a walk with the Resident Teacher, whom I greatly admired and naively considered to be a friend. One day we were staring over the fence at the beautiful mansion headquarters of Sokkai Gakkai Buddhism and, with a wistful look in his eyes, he said that they must have very powerful protectors to own such a fabulous building. So much for the purpose of Protectors being to protect realizations — by my teacher’s own admission, the purpose of Protectors is for the acquisition of worldly wealth and power ie Nothing to do with dharma practice or realisations, nothing to do with actual Buddha dharma.
OMG!! There it is - not even 6 degrees of SGI! It's RIGHT THERE!! She's right, of course - any group that admires SGI is filthy and corrupt. Like seeks like.
Soon we got a rented premises and I moved in. Luckily for me we could not afford to buy a centre, otherwise I would have sunk my savings into it and lost them, as has unfortunately happened to many others.
We all know THAT story, don't we?
However, I did give up my career path to work full-time for the growth of the centre, and with my teacher’s blessing began to sign on the dole instead. I was given the job of Education Programme Co-ordinator and with so much work being asked of me, I found little time to actually meditate. Despite that, it wasn’t long before I was asked to set up and teach a Branch class. My ego liked the idea of me being a teacher, but the reality soon hit me that far from feeling like an authentic teacher, I felt like a complete fraud as I sat there holding forth about “happiness from a different source” to a bunch of earnest seekers, when I still didn’t really have a clue about that type of happiness at all. I was faking it. We were indeed encouraged to fake it, until you make it.
That's the cultic way! It's all fake!
Gen Thubten came and gave empowerments twice in my time there. I heard him refer to Geshe-la (sic) many times as the “Third Buddha”.
Exactly the way the Soka Gakkai members in Japan have a history of referring to Ikeda as the "new true Buddha".
Once we all went to a restaurant in Reading afterwards where the owner was very friendly and had a picture of the Dalai Lama on his wall. “Gen-la” was polite but did not reciprocate the warmth
We've seen this exact same rudeness from SGI members. So much for "interfaith"...
I nudged the admin director and pointed to the picture, thinking that seeing this picture would please her and Gen-la. Far from it. She scolded me sternly, saying that she would not dream of offending her guru by pointing him to the picture. Judging by the black look on his face most of the time, he’d probably seen it already. I was flabbergasted and mystified — I tried to find out why exactly, but received only vague explanations. I chose to ignore the matter and carried on as usual.
Because that's what you do when you're in a cult and the cognitive dissonance is sizzling all around your consciousness. You're seeing that it isn't true, but you aren't ready to engage with that monstrous fact. Still, however frightful it appears, facts simply are - they aren't the emotionally-laden messes that pass for "truth" within intolerant religions like SGI and NKT.
With so much work constantly needing doing to run and expand the centre, and so many pujas to recite, especially with my new Highest Yoga Tantra commitment and all its complicated practices, I had little time for the actual meditation I’d imagined I would be doing. Thus it wasn’t long before I started to get ill with burn-out symptoms.
I remember waking up one morning in the centre and my body felt almost paralysed. It took a huge effort of will just to lift my arms or open my mouth to speak. Another resident who had become my friend called the doctor who came straight away — seemed she was concerned that I had had a stroke. Another ambitious woman at the centre had a chat with me and offered to take over my job and I was delighted to hand over the reins to her, as I was worn out. This woman then went about making herself very unpopular by behaving like a bad-tempered tyrant, with the excuse that she was now the “lineage-holder” for Geshe-la’s will towards the centre, and thus if we questioned her authority and decisions it was because we had a “negative mind” and lacked “faith”. One of her decisions was to evict my friend from the centre because she was not pure NKT and therefore seen as “negative”. My friend was devastated and I tried to protect her from the eviction, which ultimately resulted in me being evicted as well. I was actually happy to leave as I had long wanted to go and live at Madhyamaka Centre — it seemed like such an idyllic life there.
Hahahahahaha!! Typical behavior of the SGI's petty tyrantsleaders as well!
Once I arrived at Madhyamaka Centre I tried to make a formal complaint about the woman in charge at my old centre, but no senior people were interested. Samden just laughed at me.
Yup, business as usual in the SGI as well, a fellow broken system in which the leadership always have each other's backs against the membership:
In a system that is broken, it’ll be next to impossible to dislodge a troublesome person from leadership–because in a broken system, power guards itself. Those in power protect the other people in power at the expense of victims. They’ll hush up any fallout; they’ll silence victims; they’ll destroy anyone seeking to reform their group–and therefore potentially lessen their own power within it (or expose their own wrongdoing). Worse, the troublesome person in question knows that that is how the group will respond if and when the wrongdoing comes to light. Everyone in the group will all be downright shocked if anyone is ever held accountable for any damage done.Source
What I did not realise then was the sort of antics that went on at my old centre were commonplace in NKT centres. Since then I have heard time and again of instances of the authoritarian management style and bullying that seems to go on as a matter of course in many, if not most, NKT centres.
I settled in to life at Madhyamaka and soon got laden down with loads of work again ie I was put in charge of the kitchen and the food shop. However, the idyllic life I had imagined there did not materialise (obviously) and it began to feel like a pretty lonely, miserable life there.
Of course. One cult is pretty much exactly like another, and those who hop from cult to cult never get the benefits that were dangled in front of them to induce them to sign their lives away.
The sense of community was almost non-existent and the atmosphere was cold and indifferent.
Welcome to SGI!
Worse still, there were many instances I observed of careless, ego-driven behaviour that got me wondering whether any of this so-called spiritual practice was actually authentic at all.
And the answer is...NO IT IS NOT! SGI, NKT, no matter - all the same.
Instead, I began to feel that the place was teeming with psychologically damaged, lonely people unable to cope with the “real world” on one side, and on the other, a closed, smug clique of the “in crowd”. The so-called practices appeared inauthentic to me — most of these people seemed to be just trying to escape from the real world into some blissed out notion of a Pure Land, just papering over the cracks in their damaged psyches with their so-called meditation. Here was “Spiritual Bypassing” in action.
The fixed false smiles and the glassy-eyed expressions began to make me feel like I was in a kind of psychiatric hospital with nice grounds. Most of these people were probably wrapped up in spreading the teaching, and that was why they all seemed to be, well, just a little out of it. They must be missing the point! By now, they could have amassed an amazing amount of happiness, and must have satisfied all kinds of desires, piling up the benefits. Why then did they remind me of pictures I had seen of patients in mental hospitals?Source
Any mention of the role of psychotherapy in helping people was always met with scorn — “just abandon self-cherishing and cherish others instead and all will be well — Geshe-la’s Dharma is all you need”. But it isn’t.
Yet another parallel! Take a look:
I've many times heard leaders say that, if you practice properly, you shouldn't need medication, that improving your body's functioning is one of the "conspicuous benefits" of "correct faith", so you should aim at getting off those sinful meds as soon as you possibly can.Source I was shocked to find that many SGI members advised against taking medication for conditions like clinical depression and anxiety. Certainly, there's the notion that if you do enough chanting, you should be able to fix anything, but there is less prejudice against taking medication for other reasons -- statins for high cholesterol, antibiotics for infection, etc. This is not limited to SGI, however. A Catholic friend of mine -- an educated professional woman -- surprised me when she criticized a relative of hers for taking antidepressants. "If she trusted in Christ, she wouldn't despair!" this woman exclaimed. I said, "Oh, and you take Simvastatin for your cholesterol! Why don't you just ask God to lower your cholesterol!?" This kind of thinking irritates me! We're not living in the damn 1400's, where people thought you could get a fever because a witch put a spell on you because they had no way of knowing otherwise!Source Some SGI leaders do seem to have a bias against psychiatry, and medication, and advise members with delusions, depression, OCD, or whatever to chant more and practice harder to overcome this. Why is it "taking the easy way out" to take prozac -- but it's okay to take cholesterol medication? I don't know. It's not right.Source
I was finding the Highest Yoga Tantra practices very difficult and not in the least helpful in the cultivation of a peaceful mind. I found the endless hours of puja practice tedious and very reminiscent of my previous life as a Catholic: being bored to death at Mass and doing Penance.
Yup - chanting "million daimoku campaigns" and describing the practice as feeling like an "endless painful austerity"... Of course, you were Bad and Wrong if you admitted that's what it felt like, but the description was so commonplace - it had to come from somewhere...
I also read in one of Geshe-la’s books that if you abandoned your commitment to HYT practice the bad karma accrued would result in countless aeons in hell.
Oh, you mean like THIS??
“In the teaching of Nichiren, one attains Buddhahood by correctly following the path of mentor and disciple. If one veers from the path of mentor and disciple, then even if one upholds the Lotus Sutra, one will fall into the hell of incessant suffering.” Source
This is hilarious!
Catholicism again. I went to my teacher for reassurance that if I gave up HYT and went back to basics that I wasn’t going to hell. He could not give me such an assurance — perhaps thinking that the threat of hellish rebirth would keep me in line. Very Catholic. In desperation I sought, and was granted, an audience with “Geshe-la” himself. I tried to explain to him the difficulties I was having, hoping for some personal guidance. I may as well have said nothing, because he took no personal interest in me whatsoever and just doled out the same old trite, potted advice: do Heart Jewel everyday and if I had time to do Wishfulfilling Jewel and Dakini Yoga as well (or something equally useless). Meeting him didn’t help me whatsoever.
In one class about anger, I held up my hand to ask about the view of some Buddhist teachers that all emotions can have a positive side, including anger: “In what way could anger ever have a positive side?” I asked. The teacher said she knew nothing about that, as I “should know” in the NKT they study only Geshe-la’s books. She gave me a big smile but her eyes were not smiling — they had that hard steely look of warning to me: that I should know better than to ask such a thing. Annoyed and embarrassed by her put down, and dissatisfied with what I was hearing, I never went back. Some years later I heard that same nun eloped with her junior sidekick teacher, a young monk — apparently because she was “lonely”. Obviously, she and many like her, are just play-acting at being wise and virtuous ordained teachers, and after a while they just can’t keep up the pretence of being something that they clearly are not.
Saw that in spades within SGI as well. Same same.
The last time I visited Madhyamaka centre the news had just broken that Gen Thubten (Gen-la) had been forced to disrobe, under threat from one of the “in-crowd” elite group, that if he did not, she would go to the press and reveal that he had been breaking his vows of chastity with impunity, having “tantric” sex with basically anyone he fancied. Seems he had tried it on with her, despite the fact that she was actually married too. Worse still, it was said that Geshe-la even knew about it, but because Thubten Gyatso was considered “special”, his actions would not accrue bad karma. Indeed, the women involved should count themselves lucky that having received his blessed “white drops”, they would get enlightened quicker!! What a pile of absolutely repellent hogwash: sexually abusive men masquerading as spiritual teachers, turning sexual exploitation into “spiritual practice”.
On that day in 1996 there was also a coach in the car park. My friend, who was relaying to me the news about Gen-la, was getting ready to go off on it. She told me that they were going to protest against the Dalai Lama because, according to her teacher, due to his “ban” on Shugden, the Shugdenpas in India were experiencing “persecution”. I asked her if she had seen any proof of persecution, to which she sheepishly replied “No — but if my teacher says it’s true, then I have to believe her. I have to keep my faith in my teacher”.
The Ikeda cult says everyone has to hate Nichiren Shoshu because they're somehow invisibly "persecuting" SGI - see "Soka Spirit".
I commented that she was out of her mind and asked her to remember Buddha’s advice: just because somebody says it’s true, doesn’t necessarily mean it is true, no matter who said it, even the Buddha himself. But she wasn’t listening. I never saw her or spoke to her again. Nor did I want to.
Oh, yeah, that whole "think for yourself" concept doesn't go over at all well with culties.
I was pretty enraged by what I’d heard about “Gen-la” too. How could he be such a hypocrite I thought, as my mind went back to one of his Teacher Training Weekends that I had attended: he had told us in no uncertain terms that sexual relationships between students and teachers were a complete no-no — totally out of bounds. So it was one rule for us, and another for him then — presumably because he thinks he’s “special”.
I'm afraid that's Cult Leader 101. That's WHY they do it - so they can exploit everyone else and get ALL the goodies for themselves!
I barely gave the NKT any more thought at all after1996/7, apart from an incident in 1999 when I bumped into an ex-NKT monk at an NLP seminar. He had once been a rabid media spokesman for Kelsang Gyatso in the 1996 round of protests, but I did not know that at this time. He told me that he had left the NKT, disillusioned and disgruntled: he had been sent to Spain as a monk/teacher where he had fallen in love and gotten a girl pregnant. When he asked him for help, Geshe-la reacted with a lot of anger at what had happened, but told him in the end not to worry about it, that he forgave him and to come back to England, forget the girl and baby, and that they would basically do one of their cover-up jobs. This ex-monk was pretty disgusted by Geshe-la’s response, and despite his previous fanaticism, he finally saw the light. So there’s hope for Rabten et al yet. His story was shocking but it also confirmed to me that I had made the right choice: Kelsang Gyatso is not a genuine spiritual master and the NKT does not practice authentic Buddhist teachings.
Fast forward to late 2012 when I caught sight of an erstwhile NKT monk singing in the choir of Handel’s Messiah at the Albert Hall. I went home and googled New Kadampa Tradition and was met with an avalanche of personal accounts and information that affirmed, in no uncertain terms, my suspicions about the NKT all those years ago. No trace of that monk anywhere either — he had obviously left.
Obviously, NKT flushes everyone down the memory hole exactly the way fellow cult SGI does, especially defectors!
I was also horrified to see and read what they were saying about the Dalai Lama: it seemed to me this was a clear case of transferred subconscious hostility, because everything they were saying about the Dalai Lama was actually true of Kelsang Gyatso and the NKT — the allegations of hypocrisy, denial of religious freedom, ostracisation, bullying, abuse, all the lies — sounded like a day in the life of an average NKT Centre to me.
Swap in "Nichiren Shoshu High Priest Nikken Abe" and "Nichiren Shoshu" as the targets, and you've got the SGI's "The Temple Issue", aka "Soka Spirit".
nothing more than a deluded fantasy of ego-driven spiritual materialism, where the need for authentic self-knowledge is passed over, in the constant striving to gain the merit and blessings
Oh brother - is THAT ever spot on for SGI as well!
Self-defeating Disney Dharma. Missing the point entirely.
I like that!
Nor is it so different from Catholicism either: Catholics were once fooled into thinking they could buy Indulgences to guarantee a place in heaven; NKT members are fooled into thinking if they dedicate their hearts and minds, and all their energy, time and money to the NKT and Kelsang Gyatso, they are getting merit tokens in return, to buy their entry into the “Pure Land”. It’s basically the same idea just dressed up in a different way for a different brand of organised religion, both of which seem to regard the accumulation of gold and temporal wealth as somehow being the work of the Lord. But at least the Catholics do carry out secular charitable work, which is more than the NKT do — the only recipient of their charity is NKT Property Incorporated (Special Gold Palaces Project) and its subsidiary company, the ISBC.
Yep, that's how the cults all operate! With a focus on contributions and recruiting, and everything inward-facing, only for the benefit of the cult and its guru. Whether that guru is Kelsang Gyatso or Daisaku Ikeda, the only difference is whatever face this predator-parasite is wearing that day. I wouldn't have given NKT another thought except for that comment, and running this down has been both eye-opening and fun! I now am more educated about the NKT cult, and I have the local NKT scold to thank! I'm just amazed how they find us out here in the reddit backwater boonies, though.
Avendaishar's Guide to Classical Music: Medieval through Classical
So...why make this list?
Imagine if someone said to you, "I don't like art." You ask them why not, and they respond, "Well, I saw this painting by Monet, and it was all blobby and weird. The closer I looked, the less I could make of it. So I'm just not a fan of art." Doesn't that sound strange? Everyone knows that disliking all art because of one painter is not logical. A person may not like a certain style (although it helps to make sure one understands it before dismissing it!), but they know there's going to be something out there that they will like.
But when people say "I don't like classical" because they've heard Bach or Mozart and found it boring, no one thinks that's strange at all... yet the situation is the same. Eastern and Western classical music traditions span thousands of years and many cultures. People who judge all of classical music based on the works of one or two composers from one small region in Europe over a period of about 150 years are very likely missing out on a style they would love if they only gave it a chance.
This is not an all-inclusive list, of course, and I tried to keep things as simple as possible with the time period divisions and descriptions. I’ve often left out the most popular work(s) associated with the composer (e.g. Beethoven’s 5th and 9th) because those don’t need to me to champion them. I preferred to list other pieces, all personal favorites of mine, that provide a rough road map through the classical music world for those who haven’t listened to much beyond Pachelbel’s Canon. (Note: I'm focusing on Western classical music only because that's what I'm familiar with.)
Because there’s so many (really, I tried to pare it down!), I’ve italicized those I particularly recommend.
Medieval era (about 500 to 1400)
Western music notation was developed during this time, and there was a strong emphasis on writing music for churches. The best example of early medieval church music was plainsong, or Gregorian chant, which involved singing one melody line in unison (monophonic). Polyphonic music, where voices are combined not in unison but in different parts, developed in the later medieval era, but even then, the type of chords used were restricted to those felt to be the most pure and least dissonant. Outside of the church, secular vocal and instrumental music developed, too, often for use at courts.
Other composers to check out: Leonin, Philippe de Vitry, Guido d’Arezzo, Anthonello de Caserta.
Renaissance era (about 1400 to 1600)
While Renaissance arts and architecture focused on symmetry and the use of classical elements of style, music continued a steady progression towards a greater use of polyphony (where voices are combined not in unison but different parts). Much choral music was written for churches, an example of which being the Latin mass, but secular vocal and instrumental music also developed to a greater degree. The harmonic and tonal developments made during this time are still present today at the foundation of music of all types, not just classical.
Other composers to check out: Johnannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht, Heinrich Isaac, Guillaume Dufay, Thomas Weelkes, Thomas Morley, Thomas Tallis, Orlando di Lassi, William Byrd, John Dunstable, and Claudio Monteverdi. If you liked the Renaissance instrumental music listed above, check out ensembles like Piffaro and the New York Renaissance Band, which specialize in early music.
Baroque era (about 1600 to 1750)
The Baroque era in art and architecture came from a growing dissatisfaction with the ordered rationale and rules of the Renaissance. It deserted the symmetrical and the conventional, choosing shapes such as ovals over straight lines or circles, and was all about dramatic curves and florid decorations. In music, this found expression in complex combinations of melodies (counterpoint) and improvisation. Just as in 20-21st century jazz, musicians of the Baroque era were expected to add musical embellishments to the written score.
Other composers to check out: Heinrich Schutz, Alessandro Scarlatti, Dietrich Buxtehude, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Francesco Geminiani, Johann Hasse, George Philipp Telemann, Henry Purcell, Domenico Scarlatti.
At this time, European arts and architecture experienced a revival of interest in antiquity, especially Greek antiquity, a movement called classicism. The Classical era of music was a reaction to the excesses of the Baroque. While Baroque music had been florid and complicated with multiple simultaneous melody lines (counterpoint), music from the Classical era had cleaner lines and more simplicity in its texture (one melody supported by harmonies).
Other composers to check out: Antonio Salieri (no, he didn’t poison Mozart), J.C. Bach (another son of J.S.), Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Muzio Clementi, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Stamitz, Luigi Boccherini, Gioacchino Rossini.
I have recently listened to all of Brahms works and compiled a ranking of the 100 best pieces. Brahms was a perfectionist, that's why basically all of his compositions are worth listening, the ranking is more or less a matter of taste and maybe complexity of the works. I'm just an amateur listener, so take this ranking with a grain of salt. The ranking is probably not too controversial, but if you have some major objections please let me know. Maybe it can encourage you to listen more to Brahms works, he's truly one of the best.
De aanhoudende mensenrechtenschendingen in het Amazoneregenwoud, de plannen van president Bolsonaro van Brazilië om het Amazonewoud verder te vernietigen en de dubbele moraal die de EU hierover op nahoudt
Vragen van het lid Ouwehand (PvdD) aan de minister voor Buitenlandse Handel en Ontwikkelingssamenwerking over de aanhoudende mensenrechtenschendingen in het Amazoneregenwoud, de plannen van president Bolsonaro van Brazilië om het Amazonewoud verder te vernietigen en de dubbele moraal die de EU hierover op nahoudt. (ingezonden 1 augustus 2019) 1 Bent u bekend met de berichten in de internationale media ‘Bolsonaro declares 'the Amazon is ours'’ 1), ‘Bolsonaros 'alternative Fakten'’ 2), ‘Amazon deforestation accelerating towards unrecoverable 'tipping point'’ 3), ‘Braziliaanse goudzoekers vallen Wajãpi-reservaat binnen en vermoorden leider’ 4) en ‘Amazon gold miners invade indigenous village in Brazil after its leader is killed’? 5) 2 Kunt u bevestigen dat vijftig illegale goudzoekers vorige week het gebied van de Wajãpi-stam in het Amazonegebied zijn binnengevallen en dat een van de leiders van de Wajãpi-stam vermoord is? Kunt u bevestigen dat de rest van de stam vervolgens gevlucht is? Zo nee, wat is er dan gebeurd? 3 Heeft u gelezen dat stamlid Kureni Wajãpi in een gesprek met The Guardian liet weten te vinden dat Bolsonaro de aanval heeft aangemoedigd, en zei: “Dit komt door de president. Hij bedreigt de inheemse volken van Brazilië.”? 4 Sinds wanneer is u bekend dat president Bolsonaro de mensen die al vele generaties lang in het Amazonegebied leven ‘parasieten’ noemt? 5 Sinds wanneer is u bekend dat president Bolsonaro in een interview het volgende heeft gezegd: “Het is jammer dat de Braziliaanse cavalerie niet zo efficiënt was als de Amerikaanse, die de indianen heeft uitgeroeid.”? 6 Wat vindt u van deze uitspraken? 7 Kunt u bevestigen dat in het Yanomami-gebied en in de plaatsen Espigão d’Oeste en Placas er gewelddadigheden hebben plaatsgevonden, vermoedelijk uitgevoerd door illegale mijnbouwers en houthakkers? Kunt u bevestigen dat de Braziliaanse minister van milieu Ricardo Salles in een toespraak juist zijn steun heeft uitgesproken voor de activiteiten van deze mijnbouwers en houthakkers? Zo ja, wat vindt u ervan dat de minister die hoofdverantwoordelijk is voor de bescherming van het Amazoneregenwoud zich op deze wijze uitlaat? Zo nee, wat is er dan gebeurd? 8 Welke consequenties verbindt u aan de uitspraken van Bolsonaro, gelet op de handelsdeal tussen de EU en de Mercosur-landen, waaronder Brazilië, waarover u tot nu toe nog altijd enthousiast lijkt te zijn? 9 Kunt u bevestigen dat Brazilië met het voorliggende EU-Mercosur-handelsakkoord een groot afzetgebied krijgt voor producten die gepaard gaan met (deze) mensenrechtenschendingen? 10 Ziet u niet dat wanneer de EU een afzetmarkt biedt voor deze producten, de EU deze mensenrechtenschendingen in Brazilië stimuleert en/of mede op haar geweten heeft? 11 Waar ligt voor u de grens als het gaat om (beoogde) handelspartners die zich schuldig maken aan grove mensenrechtenschendingen? 12 Kunt u bevestigen dat er door menselijk handelen veroorzaakte verwoestijning van het Amazoneregenwoud plaatsvindt? 13 Heeft u gelezen dat president Bolsonaro de wetenschappelijke bevindingen van het Braziliaanse National Institute of Space Research (INPE) over de dramatische versnelling van de ontbossing van het Amazonewoud een ‘leugen’ heeft genoemd? 14 Kunt u bevestigen dat president Bolsonaro grote druk uitoefent op de directeur van het INPE over deze kwestie? Zo ja, wat vindt u ervan dat de regeringsleider van een land druk uitoefent op de directeur van een onafhankelijk wetenschappelijk instituut? 15 Kunt u bevestigen dat president Bolsonaro heeft gezegd dat geen enkel ander land invloed zal kunnen uitoefenen op wat er met het regenwoud gebeurt, omdat het regenwoud 'van Brazilië is'? 16 Kunt u bevestigen dat president Bolsonaro met name Duitsland heeft genoemd als land waar hij niet naar wil luisteren, omdat Duitsland grote hoeveelheden steenkolen bij de energieproductie gebruikt? Kunt u aangeven wat de reactie van de Duitse regering hierop is? 17 Kunt u bevestigen dat president Bolsonaro toestemming heeft gegeven voor zeer schadelijke mijnbouwactiviteiten in het Amazoneregenwoud? Hoe vallen deze activiteiten te rijmen met het implementeren van het Klimaatverdrag van Parijs door Brazilië? 18 Wat moeten we ervan denken dat de Europese Commissie oproept tot het tegengaan van ontbossing en erkent dat de belangrijkste veroorzaker van die ontbossing de vraag naar voedsel en veevoer is, terwijl diezelfde Europese Commissie het gigantische EU-Mercosur-vrijhandelsverdrag, dat aantoonbaar tot meer landbouwactiviteit in het Amazonewoud en nog meer ontbossing leidt, heeft afgesloten en door de Raad wil krijgen? 19 Kunt u zich voorstellen dat burgers weinig vertrouwen hebben in mooie Europese woorden over het tegengaan van ontbossing als de Europese Commissie handelsdeals die ontbossing in de hand werken belangrijker vindt? Steunt u de oproep van de Europese Commissie om ontbossing tegen te gaan? 6) Zo ja, bent u bereid dan ook de positie in te nemen die daar bijhoort en in verzet te komen tegen het Mercosur-vrijhandelsverdrag? 20 Waar ligt voor u de grens met handelspartners die zich schuldig maken aan het vernietigen van de natuur in hun eigen land? 21 Bent u bereid om zelf harde maatregelen te treffen en daar in Europa ook voor te pleiten, zoals bijvoorbeeld het stopzetten van de import van grote hoeveelheden landbouwproducten als rundvlees, kippenvlees en suiker die op dit moment vanuit Brazilië geïmporteerd worden en waarvan de productie een direct en bewezen verband heeft met de ontbossing van het Amazoneregenwoud? Zo nee, waarom niet? 1) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/jair-bolsonaro-brazil-amazon-rainforest-deforestation 2) http://www.tagesschau.de/faktenfindebolsonaro-abholzung-regenwald-101.html 3) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/25/amazonian-rainforest-near-unrecoverable-tipping-point 4) https://nos.nl/artikel/2295515-braziliaanse-goudzoekers-vallen-wajapi-reservaat-binnen-en-vermoorden-leider.html 5) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/28/amazon-gold-miners-invade-indigenous-village-brazil-leader-killed 6) http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-19-4470_en.htm Datum: 1 augustus 2019 Nr: 2019Z15480 Indiener: Esther Ouwehand, Kamerlid PVDD Bron: tweedekamer.nl
SAMMA wie kann es sein, dass es illegal ist kleinste Mengen Marihuana zu kaufen, aber es legal ist so viele Rizinus-Bohnen zu kaufen um daraus Rizin (einen Biokampfstoff!) produzieren zu können?!
Zum Kontext der Artikel Giftfund in Köln. Genauso ist der Handel und Besitz von Kokablättern, welche das Rauschgift Kokain in geringen Mengen enthalten, verboten. Im Gegensatz zu Rizinus-Bohnen kann man aber auf Kokablättern herumkauen, was auch die Einwohner entsprechender Gebiete tun / taten. Der Effekt ist vergleichbar mit dem Trinken eines Espressos und wegen der geringen Aufnahmemenge nicht schädlich. Eine einzige, EINE EINZIGE Rizinus-Bohne ist für Menschen schon gefährlich. Und die darf man normal kaufen, auch online. Der genannte Terrorist hat sogar 1000 Bohnen online legal bestellt! 1000 Bohnen, ICH GLAUB ES HAACKT! Zum Glück isses dem Verfassungsschutz aufgefallen, der wollte ja noch eine Bombe bauen. Aber trotzdem.
Persönliche Drogen verboten aber BioKAMPFSTOFFzutaten sin erlaubt? ICH GLAUB ICH SPINNE! Dieser Tunese hat es sogar geschafft das Rizin zu isolieren. Da werd ich ja zur AXT IM WALD! Oder KETTENsäge... Sind ja ein Völkchen der Maschinenbauer. Das aber KEIN PLAN HAT wenns irgendwie drüber hinausgeht. Mann man man man man man man... Soo. Ende der Durchsage. Ich gehe jetzt mit Monsieur Claude einen Wald fällen. Schönen Tag noch.
Teil 1 Teil 2 Teil 4 Teil der Dritte Rekapitulation: Am Anfang haben wir das Problem definiert: alle Ressourcen der Gesellschaft zuweisen, sodass gilt:
MU1/MC1 = MU2/MC2 = MU3/MC3 = MU4/MC4 = ....
Letztes Mal lernten wir, dass die Märkte über Preissignale ein Ergebnis erzielen könnten, für das gilt:
MU1/P1 = MU2/P2 P1 = MC1 P2 = MC2
was wiederum das gewünschte gesellschaftliche Ergebnis erzeugt. In diesem Teil beschäftigen wir uns damit, wie die ganze schöne freie Marktmagie vermasselt werden kann. Marktmacht Monopole setzen den Preis höher als die Grenzkosten. Intuitiv gesehen stände ein Monopol einer ganzen Marktnachfragekurve gegenüber, und wenn man mehr Einheiten verkaufen wollte müsste man den Preis für jede Einheit reduzieren1. Jedes Econ 101 Lehrbuch führt einen durch die Grafiken und die Algebra. Das Wichtige ist, dass bei einem Monopol P > MC gilt. Hm. Angenommen, wir haben zwei Märkte, einen mit einem Monopol und den anderen in perfektem Wettbewerb. Dann sind unsere drei Gleichungen:
P1 > MC1 P2 = MC2 MU1/P1 = MU2/P2
Beim Einsetzen bekommen wir die Beziehung:
MU1/MC1 > MU2/MC2.
Nicht gut! Das Monopol produziert zu wenig von Gut 1, und der Nutzen pro Kosten von Gut 1 übertrifft den von Gut 2. Monopole verursachen Verzerrungen: Sie erhöhen den Preis einer Ware und verringern die Produktion dieser Ware im Vergleich dazu, was der Markt ergeben würde.2 Externe Effekte Eine weitere allgemeine Klasse von Marktversagen ist der Fall der Externalität. Angenommen, die Produktion einer Ware hat Überlaufkosten (“Spillover-Effekt”) auf andere Menschen, und wir verwenden den Begriff soziale Grenzkosten (SMU) für die Gesamtkosten der Produktion von Gut 1 (privat und spillover zusammen)3. Genauso nutzen wir den Begriff soziale Grenznutzen (SMU). Effizienz bedeutet jetzt, dass SMU1/SMC1 = SMU2/SMC2. Einfacher gesagt, Externalitäten sind Kosten und Nutzen für Personen, die nicht direkt am Handel beteiligt sind. Kohlendioxidemissionen verursachen eine globale Erwärmung, d.h. jedes Mal wenn man zur Arbeit fährt, legt man allen anderen Menschen auf dem Planeten Kosten auf. Bildung kann positive externe Effekte haben, indem eine Menge anderer gebildeter Menschen um einen rum zu haben es einfacher macht, Ideen auszutauschen und Innovation zu generieren. In wettbewerbsbestimmten Märkten setzen die Preissignale nur die privaten Grenzkosten mit den privaten Grenznutzen gleich. Das Vorhandensein von Sozialkosten und Sozialnutzen bedeutet, dass diese Märkte die Waren im Verhältnis zum gesellschaftlichen Optimum falsch zuordnen. Angenommen, Gut 1 erzeugt eine Externalität, sodass SMC1 > P1. Dann
P1 < SMC1 P2 = SMC2 MU1/P1 = MU2/P2
Somit bekommen wir:
MU1/SMC1 < MU2/SMC2
Der Nutzen pro Kosten von Gut 1 ist kleiner als der von Gut 2. Die Gesellschaft überproduziert Gut 1, da das Preissignal nicht adäquat alle Kosten der Herstellung dieses Gutes erfasst. Ein fast offensichtliches Beispiel sind CO2-Emissionen, die jede Gesellschaft in einem unregulierten freien Markt überproduziert. Preissignale sind also unglaublich stark, aber auch eingeschränkt; sie übermitteln keine Informationen über soziale Kosten und Nutzen. Öffentliche Güter Der Begriff "öffentliche Güter" wird häufig missbraucht. Er bezieht sich auf Waren, die weder ausschließbar noch konkurrierend sind. Ein Gut ist nicht konkurrierend, wenn der Konsum eines Konsumenten nicht den Konsum eines anderen Konsumenten desselben Gutes einschränkt. Ein Gut ist nicht ausschließbar, wenn ein Konsument nicht davon abgehalten werden kann, das Gut zu konsumieren. Wir haben vier Fälle:
Konkurrierend und ausschließbar. Märkte sind gut darin, diese Waren zu produzieren.
Konkurrierend, aber nicht ausschließbar. Gemeingüter; Märkte neigen dazu, diese übermäßig zu konsumieren (“Tragedy of the commons”).
Nicht konkurrierend, aber ausschließbar. Forschung fällt in diese Kategorie; wir können alle die gleiche Forschung gleichzeitig nutzen, und es ist mir möglich, meine Forschung anderen vorzuenthalten. (Siehe JSTOR Paywalls oder Closed-Source-Code.) Märkte tendieren dazu, diese Güter zu unterversorgen.
Nicht konkurrierend und nicht ausschließbar: Dinge wie Raketenabwehr. Märkte sind wirklich schlecht in der Bereitstellung dieser Güter, besonders wenn es nur schwache gesellschaftliche Sanktionen gibt. Durch die fehlende Rivalität kann das Gut, wenn es einmal produziert ist, von allen konsumiert werden. Durch die fehlenden Ausschließbarkeit kann niemand daran gehindert werden, es zu konsumieren. Es gibt eine starke Verlockung, zum Nulltarif Trittbrett zu fahren und im Marktgleichgewicht wird das Gut gar nicht produziert da jeder darauf wartet, dass jemand anders das Gut produziert.
Märkte sind mächtige Werkzeuge für die Ressourcen- und Produktionsallokation. Aber sie sind nicht perfekt. In einigen Fällen ist es möglich, staatliche Interventionen zu nutzen, um einen Markt wieder in die richtige Richtung zu bringen. Staatliche Korrekturen von Marktversagen ist das Thema des nächsten Beitrags. tuberousplant hat außerdem einen schönen Post mit ergänzenden Informationen zu dem Thema. Fußnoten:
Wir ignorieren hier Preisdiskriminierung.
Heute weist fast jeder Markt etwas Marktmacht auf. Stellt sich heraus, dass die aggregierten Ressourcenallokationskosten von Monopolverzerrungen relativ klein sind, etwa 1% des BIP pro Jahr. Sprich, auch wenn Fehlallokation durch monopolistische Verzerrungen verursacht werden könnten, scheinen diese Monopolverzerrungen im Durchschnitt relativ klein. Dennoch, diese monopolistischen Preisverzerrungen sind die Grundlage nahezu aller regulatorischen Gesetze. (Anmerkung des Übersetzers: Hier wird von den USA geredet, Quelle)
Siehe Rauchen oder die Umweltverschmutzung: Der Konsum von Zigaretten an einem öffentlichen Ort schadet den Menschen um den Raucher herum; ein Schaden, der nicht im Preis der Zigaretten enthalten war. Die Verwendung von kohlenstoffbasierten Kraftstoffen hat ebenfalls soziale Kosten, die nicht in den Marktpreisen enthalten sind.
An der Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse wurden im elektronischen Handel (Xetra) am 23.10.2020 um 17:55 Uhr folgende Schlusskurse für die 30 Werte des Deutschen Aktienindex DAX festgestellt. 101Investing ist ein führender globaler Broker, der eine fortschrittliche & sichere Handelsplattform für den Handel mit Finanzanlagen bietet. Starten Sie in 3 einfachen Schritten in den Handel! Clejuso 101 - Eigenschaften. Die Arretierung erfolgt durch verschließen mit dem Schlüssel und schon ist die Verriegelung sicher eingerastet. Der Schlüssel wird lediglich für die Öffnung der Clejuso 101 Handfessel benötigt. Die fast starre Gelenk-Verbindung schränkt die Bewegungsfreiheit auf ein Minimum ein und sorgt so zusätzlich für ... Pandemie in Deutschland Handel bittet um mehr Corona-Disziplin . Stand: 31.07.2020 09:51 Uhr . Seitenanfang. Der Einzelhandel fürchtet einen erneuten Lockdown, falls die Corona-Zahlen weiter ... 2004/C 101/06: Bekanntmachung der Kommission über informelle Beratung bei neuartigen Fragen zu den Artikeln 81 und 82 des Vertrages, die in Einzelfällen auftreten (Beratungsschreiben) (1) 78: 2004/C 101/07: Bekanntmachung der Kommission — Leitlinien über den Begriff der Beeinträchtigung des zwischenstaatlichen Handels in den Artikeln 81 und 82 des Vertrags (1) 81: 2004/C 101/08 ...
Handel 'Arrival of the Queen of Sheba' P. Barton, FEURICH ...
Crossout 101 - MAXIMIZE Your profit! - Duration: 24:24. TheCat PlaysGamez Recommended for you. 24:24. Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help About ... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Support us on Patreon and get more content: https://www.patreon.com/classicalvault --- George Frideric Handel Dixit Dominus, HWV 232 Monteverdi Choir English... I describe how both of my harpsichords work and demonstrate the stops. A close look at the inside. I'd be glad to try to answer any questions you have. Thank... For free public domain PDF sheet music: http://imslp.org/wiki/Solomon,_HWV_67_%28Handel,_George_Frideric%29 go to tab: "Arrangements and Transcriptions" scro...